请选择 进入手机版 | 继续访问电脑版

核电之家

第一核电互动平台
First nuclear power platform

[微信热议] 瑞士Nagra已获准勘探放射性废物处置库钻孔的第一批许可证

[复制链接]
核宝 发表于 2018-9-9 10:05:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
                                                                                                    瑞士国家放射性废物处置合作社Nagra已获准进行前三个探井,以寻找可能拥有两个地质处置库的地点。



瑞士放射性废物处置库的拟议地点(图片来源:SFOE / swisstopo)
在2016年和2017年期间,Nagra共向瑞士联邦能源办公室提交了22份勘探钻探申请。这些在Jura Ost和ZürichNordost地区分别有8个钻孔,在NördlichLägern地区有6个钻孔。每个申请都需要单独的批准程序。
8月17日,瑞士环境,运输,能源和通信部(DETEC)批准了前三个钻孔。这些是位于NördlichLägern场地区的Bülach(NSG 17-02)勘探井以及苏黎世Nordost的Trüllikon1(NSG 16-11)和Marthalen(NSG 16-15)井。DETEC表示,其他申请的决定将在未来几周和几个月内发布。
Nagra计划从2019年开始进行探索性钻探,以检查潜在储存库位置的地质底土。DETEC表示,Nagra预计不会进行所有22次要求的勘探钻探,并指出早期测试结果将决定进一步的钻探计划。
2011年11月,在为两个储存库选择地点的过程的第一阶段提出了六个地点:一个用于低放废物和中等废物,另一个用于高放废物。Nagra于2015年1月提议在选择过程的第三阶段和最后阶段,在苏黎世北部地区和Jura Ost的拟议选址地区进行进一步调查。它说第二阶段正在考虑的其他四个地区--Südranden,NördlichLägern,Jura-Südfuss和Wellenberg--将被保留。然而,2016年12月,瑞士联邦核安全监察局提议将NördlichLägern地区纳入最后阶段。预计联邦委员会将在今年年底之前决定是否同意纳格拉提出的第三阶段审议的地点区域。
根据探测钻孔的结果,Nagra预计将在2022年左右宣布将为两个储存库的建设准备一般许可申请的地点。最终的选址和联邦委员会关于一般许可的决定 - 以及选择过程的第三阶段结束 - 预计到2029年。联邦委员会关于一般许可的决定必须得到议会将受到可选的全国公民投票,预计将于2031年左右进行。预计中低放废物储存库将于2050年左右开始运作,高级废物储存库将于2060年左右开始运作。
瑞士放射性废物的主要来源是该国五个核电厂的电力生产。医疗,工业和研究部门也产生了一定数量的产品。总体积约为100,000立方米,其中约90%是中低放废物。
直到2006年,瑞士大部分使用过的核燃料被送往海外进行后处理。从2006年开始,高水平的废物和使用过的燃料大多存放在Wurenlingen的中央临时仓库。自1983年以来,Nagra一直在Grimsel的一个高级废物处置库运营一个地下研究实验室。

First permits issued for Swiss exploratory boreholes
21 August 2018
Switzerland's national radioactive waste disposal cooperative Nagra has been granted permits for carrying out the first three exploratory boreholes in its search for potential sites to host two geological repositories.


Proposed sites for Switzerland's radioactive waste repositories (Image: SFOE/swisstopo)
During 2016 and 2017, Nagra submitted a total of 22 applications for exploratory drilling to the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. These were for eight boreholes each in the Jura Ost and Zürich Nordost regions and six in the Nördlich Lägern region. Each application is subject to a separate approval procedure.
On 17 August, Switzerland's Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) granted permits for the first three boreholes. These are the Bülach (NSG 17-02) exploration well in the Nördlich Lägern site area and the Trüllikon 1 (NSG 16-11) and Marthalen (NSG 16-15) wells in Zürich Nordost. DETEC said decisions for the other applications will be issued in the coming weeks and months.
Nagra plans to carry out exploratory drillings from 2019 onwards to examine the geological subsoil in the potential repository site locations. DETEC said Nagra is not expected to carry out all 22 requested exploratory drillings, noting that early tests results will determine further drilling plans.
Six sites were proposed in November 2011 during the first stage of the process for selecting sites for two repositories: one for low- and intermediate-level waste, the other for high-level waste. Nagra proposed in January 2015 that further investigations be carried out at the proposed siting regions of Zürich Nordost and Jura Ost in the third and final stage of the selection process. It said the four other regions under consideration in the second stage - Südranden, Nördlich Lägern, Jura-Südfuss and Wellenberg - would be placed in reserve. However, in December 2016, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate proposed that the Nördlich Lägern region also be included in the final stage. The Federal Council is expected to decide by the end of this year whether to agree with the location areas proposed by Nagra for consideration in the third stage.
Based on the results of the exploratory boreholes, Nagra is expected to announce around 2022 the sites for which it will prepare general licence applications for the construction of the two repositories. A definitive site selection and the decision of the Federal Council on the general licence – and with this the end of the third stage of the selection process - is expected by 2029. The decision of the Federal Council on the general licence has to be approved by parliament and is subject to an optional national referendum, expected around 2031. The repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is expected to start operation around 2050 and the high-level waste repository around 2060.
The main source of Switzerland's radioactive waste is electricity production at the country's five nuclear power plants. A certain amount is also produced in the medical, industrial and research sectors. The combined total volume is around 100,000 cubic metres, of which about 90% is low- and intermediate-level waste.
Up until 2006, much of Switzerland's used nuclear fuel was sent overseas for reprocessing. High level waste, and used fuel from 2006 onwards, is mostly stored at a central interim storage at Wurenlingen. Nagra has been operating an underground research laboratory for a high-level waste repository at Grimsel since 1983.

感谢关注核设施退役及放射性废物管理公众号,留言交流行业发展。
本文系转载,如涉及版权等问题,请联系我们以便处理。
编辑:KK;联系邮箱:hituiyi@163.com
               

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
回复

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

本站推介

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表